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  Chapter 17 - Professions


  Vocabulary


     商人
   店員
   郵差
   警察
   教授
   工程師
   科學家
   軍人
   經理
   老板
   校長
   律師
   會計師
   總統
   副總統
   醫生
   大夫
   作家
   農夫
   工作
   技工
   美術家
   電腦程式員
shāngrén
dìanyuán
yóuchāi
jǐngchá
jìaoshòu
gōngchéngshī
kēxuéjīa
jūnrén
jīnglǐ
lǎobǎn
xìaozhǎng
lǜshī
kuàijìshī
zǒngtǒng
fùzǒngtǒng
yīshēng
dàifu
zuòjīa
nóngfū
gōngzuò
jìgōng
měishùjīa
dìannǎo chéngshìyuán

businessman
store clerk
postman
policeman
professor
engineer
scientist
soldier
manager
boss
principal
lawyer
accountant
president
vice-president
doctor (medical)
doctor (philosophy)
writer
farmer
work
mechanic
artist
computer programmer


 Look at the Characters




shāng
lǎo

business, trade
old
vice-, secondary




New Combinations

商路
商會
商法
商船
商品

老話
老成
老式
老將
老臉皮
老林
老老實實

副業
副手
副品
副歌
副本
(business + road)
(business + assemble)
(business + law)
(business + boat)
(business + articles)

(old + words)
(old + achieve)
(old + standard)
(old + general)
(old + complexion)
(old + trees)
(old + solid)

(secondary profession)
(secondary + hand)
(secondary + products)
(secondary + song)
(secondary + origin)
trade route
chamber of commerce
commercial law
merchant ship
merchandise

old saying, adage
experienced
old-fashioned
veteran
thick-skinned
virgin forest
honest, conscientious

sideline
assistant
substandard goods
refrain
duplicate, copy
shānglù
shānghuì
shāngfǎ
shāngchuán
shāngpǐn

lǎohuà
lǎochéng
lǎoshì
lǎojìang
lǎolǐanpí
lǎolín
lǎolaoshíshi

fùyè
fùshǒu
fùpǐn
fùgē
fùběn


Look at the Language

Future Tense

There are no corresponding future tense verb formations, in Chinese, as there are in English. Chinese verbs take no inflections - there is one form only, for singular and plural, past, present and future.

In English, to form the future tense, one adds will or shall to the infinitive:



Present

I am going to New York.
He goes to Shanghai.

Future

I shall go to New York.
He will go to Shanghai.


 A common way to indicate the future tense (as well as the past) in Chinese is to add an adverb of time:


我到紐約去.


他明天到北京去.


她昨天到東京去.

Wǒ dào Nǐu Yuē qù.
I am going to New York.

Tā míngtīan dào Běijīng qù.
He will go to Beijing tomorrow.

Tā zuòtīan dào Dōngjīng qù.
She went to Tokyo yesterday.

To refer to an indefinite time in the future, use jianglai:


將來

希望
jīanglái

xīwàng
in the future

hope, plan, expect

我希望將來做老師.


他希望將來做總統.


我希望將來到中國去.


她希望將來到美國去.

Wǒ xīwàng jīanglái zuò lǎoshī.
I plan, in the future, to work as a teacher.

Tā xīwàng jīanglái zuò zǒngtǒng.
He hopes, in the future, to become president.

Wǒ xīwàng jīanglái dào Zhōngguó qù.
I plan, in the future, to go to China.

Tā xīwàng jīanglái dào Měiguó qù.
She plans, in the future, to go to America.


Conjunctions

The word for and is:

and

一張桌子和四張椅子.


我吃蘋果和橘子.


我的書和你的書好.


她和你都是我的朋友.

Yīzhāng zhōuzi hé sìzhāng yǐzi.
a table and four chairs

Wǒ chī píngguó hé júzi.
I eat apples and oranges.

Wǒde shū hé nǐde shū hǎo.
My book and your book are good.

Tā hè nǐ dōu shì wǒde péngyou.
She and you are both my friends.

but one can simply pause between words instead of using a conjunction:


一張桌子, 四張椅子


我的書, 你的書好.


她, 你都是我的朋友.

yīzhāng zhōuzi, sìzhāng yǐzi
a table and four chairs

Wǒde shū, nǐde shū hǎo.
My book and your book are good.

Tā, nǐ dōu shì wǒde péngyou.
She and you are both my friends.