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  Chapter 15 - Supermarket


  Vocabulary


     飯
   雞蛋
   面包
   茶
   啤酒
   葡萄酒
   汽水
   牛奶
   果汁
   咖啡
   可口可樂
   肉
   牛肉
   豬肉
   羊肉
   雞肉
   鴨肉
   排骨
   魚
   蝦
   蟹
   干貝
   蔬菜
   青菜
   湯
   豆腐
   水果
   蘋果
   蘋果
   橘子
   蛋糕
   冰淇淋
   醋
   糖
fàn
jīdàn
mìanbāo
chá
píjǐu
pútáojǐu
qìshuǐ
níunǎi
guǒzhī
kāfēi
Kěkǒu Kělè
ròu
níuròu
zhūròu
yángròu
jīròu
yāròu
páigǔ

xiā
xìe
gānbèi
shūcài
qīngcài
tāng
dòufu
shuǐguǒ
píngguǒ
xīangjīao
júzi
dàngāo
bīngqílín

táng
food, rice
eggs
bread
tea
beer
wine
soda
milk
juice
coffee
Coca-Cola
meat
beef
pork
lamb
chicken
duck
spareribs
fish
shrimp
crab
scallops
vegetables
green vegetables
soup
beancurd
fruit
apples
bananas
oranges
cake
ice cream
vinegar
sugar, candy

 Look at the Characters




guǒ
táng
xīang
fruit
sugar
fragrant

New Combinations

果醬
果園
果皮
果肉
果糖
果汁
果木

白糖
紅糖
冰糖
糖果
糖蜜
糖水
糖衣

香瓜
香腸
香粉
香火
香蕉水
香氣
香水
香油
香脂
(fruit + sauce)
(fruit + garden)
(fruit + skin)
(fruit + meat)
(fruit + sugar)
(fruit + juice)
(fruit + tree)

(white + sugar)
(red + sugar)
(ice + sugar)
(sugar + fruit)
(sugar + honey)
(sugar + water)
(sugar + clothes)

(fragrant + melon)
(fragrant + intestine)
(fragrant + powder)
(fragrant + fire)
(banana + water)
(fragrant + air)
(fragrant + water)
(fragrant + oil)
(fragrant + grease)
jam
orchard
peel,rind
fruit pulp
fructose
fruit juice
fruit tree

refined sugar
brown sugar
rock candy
candy
molasses
syrup
sugarcoating

muskmelon
sausage
face powder
joss, incense
banana oil
aromatic
perfume
sesame oil
face cream
quǒjìang
guǒyuán
guǒpí
guǒròu
guǒtáng
guǒzhī
guǒmù

báitáng
hóngtáng
bīngtáng
tánguǒ
tángmì
tánqshuǐ
tángyī

xīangguā
xīangcháng
xīangfěn
xīanghuǒ
xīangjīaoshuǐ
xīangqì
xīangshuǐ
xīangyóu
xīangzhī


Look at the Language

1. Past Tense

  There is no such thing as a verb "tense" in Chinese:


他看書.

Tā kàn shū.

 could mean, for example,


He reads a book (or)
He has read a book (or)
He will read a book (or)
....


You can refer to the past with an appropriate adverb:


她到中國去.


上個星期, 她到中國去.

Tā dào Zhōnggúo qù.
She is going to China.

Shàngge xīngqī, tā dào Zhōngquó qù.
Last week, she went to China.

他來.
他今天來.
他明天來.
他昨天來.

Tā lái.
Tā jīntīan lái.
Ta míngtīan lái.
Ta zuótīan lái.

He is coming.
He is coming today.
He is coming tomorrow.
He came yesterday.

 A way to indicate that the action of the sentence has already occurred, without having to use an adverb of time, is to use the particle word le:


我到美國去.
我到美國去了.

他來.
他來了.
Wǒ dào Měiguó qù.
Wǒ dào Měigúo qù le.

Tā lài.
Tā lái le.
I am going to America.
I went to America.

He is coming.
He came.

  Le is used only in affirmative sentences. To make the sentence negative, use meiyou or mei:


我們吃飯.
我們沒有吃飯.
我們沒吃飯.

他去.
他沒有去.
他沒去.
Wǒmen chīfàn.
Wǒmen méiyǒu chīfàn. Wǒmen méi chīfàn.

Tā qù
Tā méiyǒu qù
Tā méi qù.

We are eating.
We didn't eat.
We didn't eat.

He is going.
He didn't go.
He didn't go.