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  Chapter 11 - China & Geography


  Vocabulary


     中國
   韓國
   日本
   萬裡長城
   新疆
   貴州
   北京
   南京
   東京
   黃河
   河南
   河北
   四川
   湖北
   湖南
   廣西
   廣東
   山東
   山西
   西江
   雲南
   長江
   東海
   南海
   台灣
   台北
   東北
   黒龍江
   香港
   上海
Zhōngguó
Hánguó
Rìběn
Wànlǐ Chángchéng
Xīnjīang
Guìzhōu
Běijīng
Nánjīng
Dōngjīng
Huáng Hé
Hénán
Héběi
Sìchuān
Húběi
Húnán
Guǎngxī
Guǎngdōng
Shāndōng
Shānxī
Xījīang
Yúnnán
Chángjīang
Dōnghái
Nánhǎi
Táiwān
Táiběi
Dōngběi
Hēilóngjīang
Xīanggǎng
Shànghǎi
China
Korea
Japan
Great Wall of China
New Region
Guizhou
North Capital
South Capital
Tokyo
Yellow River
River South
River North
Four Rivers
Lake North
Lake South
West of Guang
East of Guang
East of Mountains
West of Mountains
West River
South of the Clouds
Yangtze River
East China Sea
South China Sea
Terrace Bay
North Taiwan
Manchuria
Black Dragon River
Hong Kong
Upper Sea

 Look at the Characters





yáng
shān

hǎi
ocean, foreign
hill, mountain
river
sea

New Combinations

洋人
洋房
洋車
洋火

山面
山歌
山頂
山水
山羊
山河
山地

河馬
河山
河狸
河口
河床
河道
河谷

海子
海上
海洋
海港
人海
海口
海員
海外
海船
出海
海地
黑海
海南島
海外華僑
(foreign + man)
(foreign + house)
(foreign + vehicle)
(foreign + fire)

(hill + top)
(hill + song)
(mountain + top)
(hill + water)
(mountain + horse)
(mountains + rivers)
(mountain + earth)

(river + horse)
(rivers + mountains)
(river + raccoon)
(river + mouth)
(river + bed)
(river + path)
(river + valley)

(sea + small)
(sea + above)
(sea + ocean)
(sea + harbor)
(people + sea)
(sea + mouth)
(sea + worker)
(sea + outside)
(sea + boat)
(go + sea)
(sea + earth)
(black + sea)
(sea + south + Island)
(sea + outside + China)
foreigner
western-style house
rickshaw
matches

hilltop
folk song
mountaintop
landscape
mountain goat
land, territory
moutainous area

hippopotamus
land, territory
beaver
outlet, mouth of a river
riverbed
course of a river
river valley

lake
at sea
seas, oceans; maritime
seaport
crowds of people
seaport
sailor
overseas
seagoing vessel
put out to sea
Haiti
Black Sea
South Sea Island
Overseas Chinese
yángrén
yángfáng
yángchē
yánghuǒ

shāntóu
shāngē
shāndǐng
shānshuǐ
shānyáng
shānhé
shāndì

hémǎ
héshān
hélí
hékǒu
héchuáng
hédào
héqǔ

hǎizi
hǎisháng
hǎiyáng
hǎigǎng
rénhǎi
hǎikǒu
hǎiyuán
hǎiwài
hǎchuán
chūhǎi
Hǎidì
hēihǎi
Hǎinán Dǎo
Hǎiwài Huáqíao


Look at the Language

Geographical Terms












颱風




西

jīng
hǎi

jīang

chéng
dǎo
chuān
guǎng
shān
yáng
táifēng
yún

dōng
nán

běi
capital
sea
river
river
lake
city
island
river
wide
mountains
ocean
typhoon
clouds

east
south
west
north

Here are some words to describe locations in and around China. Remember that literal translations of geographical place names can often make sense!



Cities

北京
南京
東京
上海
香港
廣州
桂林
Běijīng
Nánjīng
Dōngjīng
Shànghǎi
Xīanggǎng
Guǎngzhōu
Guìlín
North Capital
South Capital
Tokyo (East Capital)
Upper Sea
Hong Kong
Canton
Honored Woods


Provinces

浙江
江西
江蘇
新疆
貴州
河南
河北
Zhèjīang
Jīangxī
Jīangsū
Xīnjīang
Guìzhōu
Hénán
Héběi
(No translation)
Stream West
Kiangning + Suchow
New Region
Honorable Place
River South
River North

Sichuan and Hunan, as well as being provinces of China, refer to two styles of cooking. Sichuan is often spelled "Szechuan" or "Szechwan".


四川
湖北
湖南
海南島
廣西
廣東
山東
山西
雲南
新疆
貴州
黑龍江
Sìchuān
Húnán
Húběi
Hǎinán Dǎo
Guǎngxī
Guǎngdōng
Shāndōng
Shānxī
Yúnnán
Xīnjīang
Guìzhōu
Hēilóngjīang
Four Rivers
Lake South
Lake North
Sea-south Island
West of Guang
East of Guang
East of the mountains
West of the mountains
South of the clouds
New Region
Honorable Place
Black Dragon River

Nearly all of the provinces and regions have descriptive or colorful names:


Chinese

安徽
浙江
福建
黑龍江
河南
河北
湖北
湖南
內蒙古
甘肅
江西
吉林
廣西
廣東
貴州
遼寧
寧夏
山西
山東
陝西
新疆
四川
台灣
西藏
青海
雲南
Traditional

Anhwei
Chekiang
Fukien
Heilungkiang
Honan
Hopei
Hunan
Hupei (Hupeh)
Inner Mongolia
Kansu
Kiangsi
Kirin
Kwangsi
Kwangtung
Kweichow
Liaoning
Ningsia
Shansi
Shantung
Shensi
Sinkiang
Szechwan
Taiwan
Tibet
Tsinghai
Yunnan
Pinyin

Ānhuī
Zhèjīang
Fújìan
Hēilóngjīang
Hénán
Héběi
Húnán
Húběi
Nèi Měnggǔ
Gānsù
Jīangxī
Jílín
Guǎngxī
Guǎngdōng
Guìzhōu
Liáoníng
Níngxìa
Shānxī
Shāndōng
Shǎnxī
Xīnjīang
Sìchuān
Táiwān
Xīzàng
Qīnghǎi
Yúnnán
Literal Meaning

Peaceful Honor
Bore River
Prosperity Found
Black Dragon River
South of the River
North of the River
South of the Lake
North of the Lake
Inner Mongolia
Pleasant Respect
River West
Magic Forest
Wide West
Wide East
Honorable District
Distant Peace
Peaceful Summer
West of the Mountains
East of the Mountains
West of the Pass
New Frontier
Four Rivers
Terrace Bay
Western Storehouse
Blue-Green Sea
South of the Clouds


Bodies of Water


西江
長江
黃河
東海
南海
太平洋
大西洋
地中海
台灣 (臺灣)
Xī Jiāng
Cháng Jiāng
Huáng Hé
Dōng Hǎi
Nán Hǎi
Tàipíng Yáng
Dàxī Yáng
Dìzhōng Hǎi
Táiwān
West River
Yangtze River
Yellow River
East China Sea
South China Sea
Pacific Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Mediterranean Sea
Terraced Bay


More Cities and Places

Chinese

鄭州
重慶
杭州
哈爾濱
廣州
西安
天津
青島

東北
北平
台灣
台北
萬里長城
香港
Traditional

Chengchow
Chungking
Hangchow
Harbin
Canton
Sian
Tientsin
Tsingtao

Manchuria
Peiping
Taiwan
Taipei

Hong Kong
Pinyin

Zhèngzhōu
Chóngqìng
Hángzhōu
Hāěrbīn
Guǎngzhōu
Xī ān
Tīanjīn
Qīngdǎo

Dōngběi
Běipíng
Táiwān
Táiběi
Wànlǐ Chángchéng
Xīanggǎng
English or Literal






West Calm
Sky Ferry
Green Island

Northeast
North Peace
Terraced Bay
In the North of Taiwan
Great Wall of China
Fragrant Harbor


Where Are We?

The four points of the compass




西
dōng
nán

běi
east
south
west
north

are found in many Chinese place names


北京
南京
東京
湖北
湖南
Běijīng
Nánjīng
Dōngjīng
Húběi
Húnán
Peking (North Capital)
Nanking (South Capital)
Tokyo (East Capital)
Hubei (Lake North)
Hunan (Lake South)

and help to tell someone where the place is:





在北邊
向北邊
在西邊
向西邊
在東邊
向東邊
在南邊
向南邊
zài
xìang

zài běibīan
xìang běibīan
zài xībīan
xìang xībīan
zài dōngbīan
xìang dōngbīan
zài nánbīan
xìang nánbīan
at, in
direction, towards

in the north
towards the north
in the west
towards the west
in the east
towards the east
in the south
towards the south

Some location examples:




zài
yǒu
at, in
there is, to exist

北京在中國的北邊.


南京在中國的東邊.


上海在南京東邊.


河北在中國的北邊.


河北北邊有大山.


山大在河北北邊.


河北東邊有黃海.


湖南西邊有高山.


大山在湖南西邊.


東京西邊有中國.


大山在湖南西邊.

Běijīng zài Zhōngguóde běibīan.
Beijing is in the north of China.

Nánjīng zài Zhōngguóde dōngbīan.
Nanjing is in eastern China.

Shànghǎi zài Nánjīng dōngbīan.
Shanghai is east of Nanjing.

Héběi zài Zhōngguóde běibīan.
Hebei is in the north of China.

Héběi běibīan yǒu dà shān.
North of Hebei are mountains.

Dà shān zài Héběi běibīan.
North of Beijing are mountains.

Héběi dōngbīan yǒu Huáng Hǎi.
East of Hebei is the Yellow sea. river

Húnán xībīan yǒu gāo shān.
West of Hunan are high mountains.

Dà shān zài Húnán xībīan.
Big mountains lay to the west of Hunan.

Dōngjīng xībīan yǒu Zhōngguó.
West of Tokyo is China.

Dà shān zài Húnán xībīan.
Big mountains lay to the west of Hunan.

Add ren to the place-name to describe the native:


東京
東京人
湖南人
湖北人

東北
東北人
他是湖南人.
他是東北人.
Dōngjīng
Dōngjīngrén
Húnánrén
Húběiren

Dōngběi
Dōngběirén
Tā shì Húnánrén.
Tā shì Dōngběirén.
Tokyo
person from Tokyo
person from Hunan
person from Hebei

Manchuria
Manchurian
He is a native of Hunan.
He is (a) Manchurian.

There are plenty of mountains in China. Here are some examples of how to translate position and direction, using the mountain for illustration:


上山
下山

在下山的人
在山上的人

山東邊的
山西邊的

在西邊的山
在北邊的山
shàngshān
xìashān

zài xìashānde rén
zài shānshàngde rén

shān dōngbīande
shān xībīande

zài xībīande shān
zài běibīande shān
go uphill
go downhill

man at the foot of the mountain the man on top of the mountain

east of the mountains
west of the mountains

the mountains in the west
the mountains in the north

Commonly-used abbreviations:




台(臺)


長城







Huáng
Chuān
Tái
Hēi
Gǎng
Chángchéng

Cháng
Zhè

Shǎn

Qīng
Háng
Yellow River
Sichuan province
Taiwan
Heilongjiang province Hong Kong
Great Wall of China
Hubei + Hunan provinces
Yangtze River
Zhejiang province
Jiangxi province
Shaanxi province
Jilin province
Qinghai province
Hangzhou province

Related geographical words:



海港
港口

洋洋
港彎


東西
東西
東方
東南
東南


河山
江山


海島
島國


江河
江口
江山


太平
太平洋
大西
大西洋

北平
北京
南京
gǎng
hǎigǎng
gǎngkǒu
yáng
yángyáng
gǎngwān

dōng
dōngxi (xi - tone 5)
dōngxī (xi - tone 1)
Dōngfāng
dōngnán
Dōngnán

shān
héshān
jīangshān

dǎo
hǎidǎo
dǎoguó

jīang
jīanghé
jīangkǒu
jīangshān

yáng
tàipíng
Tàipíng Yáng
dàxī
Dàxī Yáng

Běipíng
Běijīng
Nánjīng
port, harbor
seaport
port, harbor
ocean, foreign
numerous
harbor

east
things
east and west
The East (Orient)
southeast
the Southeast (China)

hills, mountains
territory (rivers & mountains)
national territory

island
island
island country

river
rivers
mouth of a river
national territory

ocean
peace and tranquility
Pacific Ocean
big west
Atlantic Ocean

North Peace (Peiping)
North Capital (Peking)
South Capital (Nanking)

Beijing has been the capital of China more or less continuously for the past 700 years. In ancient times it was significant as a trading center; situated strategically inside the Great Wall, the city was at the crossroads of trade flowing between China and areas to the north. Later on it became the home of the Imperial court and the administrative center of the country.

In 1928 Chiang-Kai-Shek's government established the capital in Nanjing ('Southern Capital'), called 'Nanking' by cartographers. During this period the former capital, Beijing, was renamed as Beiping ('Northern Peace'), but translated as 'Peiping' by mapmakers. The capital stayed in Nanjing until 1949, when it returned to Beijing.

On earlier maps, one may see the capital "Beijing" spelled as "Peking" or "Peiping."